Bibliography: Training/Teaching

An Introductory Guide to Selected Training and Teaching Resources for Instructors

Although this section might be most useful for educators or trainers, the selected materials should be of interest to anyone wishing to further explore some of the important literature on Training and Teaching Resources in the areas of intercultural communication and cross-cultural training. The majority of publications listed below are not duplicated in the student bibliography guide so you may wish to also consult the student resource guide to see all of our additional reading recommendations.

A star (*) denotes items especially relevant to preparing study abroad students. We have limited our selections primarily to books that should be readily available in university libraries or from larger public libraries, although we have included some journal articles if they are particularly valuable.

This revised bibliography also contains new sections on: (1) Handbooks and research collections for readers interested in more general information on recent theoretical and applied approaches to culture learning (and many of these collections contain articles specific to study abroad); (2) references and results of some major research projects related to study abroad outcomes; (3) Global Nomads and Third Culture Kids raised outside their passport countries, who represent a growing segment of US study abroad participants; (4) instruments which have proven useful in study abroad contexts as diagnostic (e.g. Conflict Styles Inventory) and/or evaluative tools (e.g. the Intercultural Development Inventory).

General Readings and Exercises

Austin, Clyde N., ed. Cross-Cultural Re Entry: A Book of Readings. Abilene, TX: Abilene Christian University, 1986.

Albert, G., et al., eds. Service-Learning Reader: Reflections and Perspectives on Service. Raleigh, NC: National Society for Experiential Education, 1994.

Baytos, L. M. Designing and Implementing Successful Diversity Programs. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1995.

Bolen, M., ed. A guide to outcomes assessment in education abroad. Carlisle,  PA: The Forum on Education Abroad, 2007.

Bolton, G., and D. Heathcote. So You Want to Use Role Play? A New Approach in How to Plan. London, England: Trentham, 1999.

Border, L. L. B., and N. Van Note Chism, eds. Teaching for Diversity. 49, Spring. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, 1992.

Boyacigiller, N. A., R. A. Goodman, & M.E. Phillips, eds. Crossing Cultures: Insights from Master Teachers. London: Routledge, 2003.

Bramley, P. Evaluating Training Effectiveness. 2nd ed. London, U.K.: McGraw-Hill, 1996.

Brewer, E., and Kiran Cunningham. Integrating Study Abroad Into the Curriculum: Theory and Practice Across the Disciplines. Sterling, VA: Stylus Press, 2012.

Brislin, R.W., and T. Yoshida, eds. Improving Intercultural Interactions: Modules for Cross-Cultural Training Programs. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1994.

Brislin, R., and T. Yoshida. Intercultural Communication Training: An Introduction. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1994.
Casse, Pierre. Training for the Cross-cultural Mind. Washington, DC: SIETAR, 1979.

Claxton, C. S., and P. H. Murrell. Learning Styles: Implications for Improving Educational Practices. ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report 4. Washington, DC: Association for the Study of Higher Education, 1987.

Cushner, K., and R. W. Brislin, eds. Improving Intercultural Interactions: Modules for Cross-Cultural Training Programs. Vol. 2. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1997.

Denney, Martha. Going Home: A Workbook- A Guide to Professional Integration. Washington, DC: NAFSA/Aid Grant. 1985.

Dickerson-Jones, T. 50 Activities for Managing Cultural Diversity. Amherst, MA: HRD, 1993.

Fantini, A. E., ed. New Ways in Teaching Culture. New Ways in TESOL Series II: Innovative Classroom Techniques. Series ed. J. C. Richards. Alexandria, VA: TESOL, 1997.

Fennes, H., and K. Hapgood. Intercultural Learning in the Classroom. London, U.K.: Cassell, 1997.

Gardenswartz, L., and A. Rowe. The Managing Diversity Survival Guide: A Complete Collection of Checklists, Activities, and Tips. New York, NY: Irwin, 1994.

Gochenour, T., ed. Beyond Experience: The Experiential Approach to Cross-Cultural Education. Yarmouth, ME: Intercultural Press, 1993.

Goldstein, Susan. Cross-Cultural Explorations: Activities in Culture and Psychology. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon, 2000.

Gredler, M. Designing and Evaluating Games and Simulations. Houston, TX: Gulf, 1994.

Hoffa, W. (Ed.). A history of U.S. study abroad: Beginnings to 1965. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, Special Issue, Lancaster, PA: Whitmore Printing, 2007.

Hoffa, W. & DePaul, S. (Eds.). A history of U.S. study abroad: 1965-present. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, Special Issue, Lancaster, PA: Whitmore Printing, 2010.

*Hofstede, J., P. B. Pedersen, and G. H. Hofstede. Exploring Culture: Exercises, Stories and Synthetic Cultures. Yarmouth, ME: Intercultural Press, 2002.

*Kohls, L. R, and H. L. Brussow. Training Know-How for Cross Cultural and Diversity Trainers. Duncanville, TX: Adult Learning Systems, 1995.

*Kohls, L. R., and J. M. Knight. Developing Intercultural Awareness: A Cross-Cultural Training Handbook. 2nd ed. Yarmouth, ME: Intercultural Press, 1994.

Lambert, J., S. Myers, & G. F. Simons, eds. Global Competence: 50 Training Activities For Succeeding In International Business. Amherst, MA: HRD Press, 1999.

*Landis, D., and R. S. Bhagat, eds. Handbook of Intercultural Training. 2nd ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1996.

Martin, J. N., and T. K. Nakayama. Experiencing Intercultural Communication. Mountain View, CA: Mayfield, 2001.

Martin, J. N., and T. K. Nakayama. Intercultural Communication in Contexts. 2nd ed. Mountain View, CA: Mayfield, 2000.

Martin, J. N., T. K. Nakayama, and L. A. Flores, eds. Readings in Intercultural Communication: Experiences and Contexts. 2nd ed. Boston, MA: McGraw Hill, 2002.

*Morais, D., Ogden, A., & Buzinde, C. Embedded education abroad faculty toolkit: Developing and implementing course-embedded faculty-led international programs. University Park, PA: The Pennsylvania State University Schreyer Institute for Teaching Excellence and University Office of Global Programs, 2009

Nadler, L., and Z. Nadler. Designing Training Programs: The Critical Events Model. 2nd ed. Houston, TX: Gulf, 1994.

Nolan, R. W. Communicating and Adapting Across Cultures: Living and Working in the Global Village. Westport, CONN: Bergin & Garvey. 1999.

*Paige, R. M., ed. Education for the Intercultural Experience. Yarmouth, ME: Intercultural Press, 1993.

Piskurich, G. M., P. Beckschi, and B. Hall, eds. The ASTD Handbook of Training Design and Delivery: A Comprehensive Guide to Creating and Delivering Training Programs-Instructor-Led, Computer-Based, or Self-Directed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 2000.

Pusch, M. D. and N. Loewenthal. Helping Them Home: A Guide for leaders of Professional Integration and Reentry Workshops. Washington, DC: NAFSA: Association of International Educators, 1988.

Seelye, H. N., ed. Experiential Activities for Intercultural Learning. Vol. 1. Yarmouth, ME: Intercultural Press, 1996.

Seelye, H.N. Teaching Culture: Strategies for Intercultural Communication. Lincolnwood, IL: National Textbook Company, 1993.

*Savicki, Victor, ed. Developing Intercultural Competence and Transformation Theory, Research, and Application in International EducationSterling, VA: Stylus Press, 2008.
Sikkema, M., and A. Niyekawa. Design For Cross-Cultural Learning. Yarmouth, ME: Intercultural Press. 1987.

Singelis, T. M., ed. Teaching About Culture, Ethnicity, and Diversity: Exercises and Planned Activities. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1998.

Spencer, S., and Tuma, eds. Guide to Successful Short-Term Programs Abroad, The. Washington, DC: NAFSA Assoc. of International Educators, 2002.

*Storti, C., Cross-Cultural Dialogues: 74 Brief Encounters with Cultural Difference. Yarmouth, ME: Intercultural Press, 1994.

*Storti, C. Figuring Foreigners Out: A Practical Guide. Yarmouth, ME: Intercultural Press, 1999.

*Storti, C., and L. Bennhold-Samaan. Culture Matters: The Peace Corps Cross-Cultural Workbook. Washington, DC: Peace Corps Information Collection and Exchange, US Government Printing Office, 1998.

*Stringer. Donna and Patricia Cassiday, eds., 52 Activities for Exploring Value Differences.  Yarmouth, ME: Intercultural Press, 2003.

*Stringer. Donna and Patricia Cassiday, eds., 52 Activities for Improving Cross-Cultural Communication. Yarmouth, ME: Intercultural Press, 2009.

Summerfield, E. Crossing Cultures Through Film. Yarmouth, ME: Intercultural Press, 1993.

Summerfield, E., and S. Lee. Seeing the Big Picture: Exploring American Cultures on Film. Yarmouth, ME: Intercultural Press, 2001.

Thiagarajan, S. Diversity Simulation Games. Amherst, MA: HRD Press, 1995.

Thiagarajan, S. Facilitator’s Toolkit. Bloomington, IN: Workshops by Thiagi, 2000.

Thiagarajan, S. Matrix Games. Amherst, MA: HRD Press, 1995.

Thiagarajan, S. Openers and Closers, Jump Start and Wind Down Your Training Session. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, 1998.

Thiagarajan, S. Simulation Games by Thiagi. Bloomington, IN: Workshops by Thiagi, 1995.

Ward, C., S. Bochner, & A. Furnham. The Psychology of Culture Shock. 2nd ed.  East Sussex, Great Britain: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group, 2001.  Note specifically Chapter 7 (‘Sojourners: International students’) deals with both study abroad and international educational exchange groups in terms of adjustment abroad and upon return home.

Handbooks, Souree Books and Training Collections

*Berardo, K., and Darla Deardorff, eds. Building Cultural Competence: Innovative Activities and Models. London, UK, Stylus Press, 2012.

Craig, R. L., ed. Training and Development Handbook: A Guide to Human Resource Development. 4th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 1996.

*Deardorff, Darla K., ed. The SAGE Handbook of Intercultural Competence, Los Angeles, CA: Sage. 2009.

*Fowler, S. M., and M. G. Mumford, eds. Intercultural Sourcebook: Cross-Cultural Training Methods Vol. 1. Yarmouth ME: Intercultural Press, 1995.

*Fowler, S. M., and M. G. Mumford, eds. Intercultural Sourcebook: Cross-Cultural Training Methods. Vol. 2. Yarmouth ME: Intercultural Press, 1999.

Gardenswartz, L., and A. Rowe. Managing Diversity: A Complete Desk Reference and Planning Guide. Rev. ed. San Diego, CA: Pfeiffer, 1998. While expensive and aimed largely at a business audience, the materials in this, and the following citation, are first-rate collections, portions of which can be easily adopted for a study abroad audience.

*Landis, D., Bennett, J. M, & Bennett, M. J. , eds.. Handbook of intercultural training (3rd ed.). Beverly Hills, California: Sage, 2003.

Note: this book contains the article by Paige, R. M. (2004). Instrumentation in intercultural training. (pp. 85-128) which is a meticulous examination of over thirty widely used instruments and details what they are, what they measure and suggests appropriate uses for them.

Landis. D., and Richard W. Brislin, eds. Handbook of Intercultural Training: Issues In Training Methodology. Vol. II,. New York, NY: Pergamon Press, 1983

*Kohls, L. R., and J. M. Knight. Developing Intercultural Awareness: A Cross-Cultural Training Handbook. 2nd ed. Yarmouth, ME: Intercultural Press, 1994.

Lewin, Ross., ed. The Handbook of Practice and Research in Study Abroad: Higher Education and the Quest for Global Citizenship.  New York, NY: Routledge, 2009.

Mitchell, G. The Trainer's Handbook: The AMA Guide to Effective Training. 3rd ed. New York: NY: AMACOM (American Management Association), 1997.

Phillips, J. J. Handbook of Training Evaluation and Measurement Methods. 3rd ed. Houston, TX: Gulf, 1997.

Rasmussen, T. The ASTD (American Society for Training and Development) Trainer's Sourcebook: Diversity. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 1995.

*Slimbach, R. Transcultural journeys: Anthropology for everyday life. Monrovia, CA: World Wise Books, 2012. This unique self-published textbook (ISBN 0-9723867-0-X) was produced for use in several courses within the Global Studies major at Azusa Pacific University, including the core course ‘Anthropology for Everyday Life’. It is a useful resource that combines an anthropological perspective with topics useful in preparing students for study abroad. Available by mail from the Azusa Pacific University bookstore at:

Silberman, M., ed. The 2002 Training and Performance Sourcebook. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 2001.
*VandeBerg, M., R. Michael Paige and Kris H. Lou., eds. Student Learning Abroad: What Our Students are Learning, What They’re Not. And What We can Do about it. Sterling, Virginia: Stylus Press, 2012.
*Ward, C., S. Bochner, & A. Furnham. The Psychology of Culture Shock, 2nd. ed.  East Sussex, Great Britain: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group, 2001. Although this academic book is heavily psychologically-oriented, the research is comprehensive and interesting, particularly Chapter 7 (Sojourners: International students) that deals with both study abroad and international educational exchange groups both in terms of adjustment abroad and upon return home.

Research Results from Study Abroad Projects

*Maximizing Study Abroad (MAXSA):
Strategies for Language and Culture Learning and Use
and the MAXSA Research Project

During the period 1999-2005 the project leaders and a team of University of Minnesota scholars created, field-tested, and revised the following set of three guides as part of the Maximizing Study Abroad series:

(1) Maximizing Study Abroad: A Students’ Guide to Strategies for Language and Culture Learning and Use. By R. Michael Paige, Andrew D. Cohen, Barbara Kappler Mikk, Julie C. Chi, & James P. Lassegard

(2) Maximizing Study Abroad: A Program Professionals’ Guide to Strategies for Language and Culture Learning and Use

(3) Maximizing Study Abroad: A Language Instructors’ Guide to Strategies for Language and Culture Learning and Use
By Barbara Kappler Mikk, Andrew D. Cohen, & R. Michael Paige with Julie C. Chi, James P. Lassegard, Margaret Maegher, and Susan J. Weaver

This set of guidebooks was designed to assist students, program professionals, and language instructors make the most of study abroad through strategies for both language and culture learning and use.

The first was targeted at students. This flexible and user-friendly guide helps students identify and use a wide variety of language- and culture-learning strategies.

The second two were designed to provide study abroad professionals and language teachers with both a solid understanding of language and culture learning theory and concrete ways to use this knowledge to support students in their skill development.

Research on Effectiveness of Maximizing Study Abroad Through Language and Culture Strategies

Between 2003-2005 the Minnesota team undertook a new research phase related to MAXSA, the goal of which was to field test the guidebooks in the Maximizing Study Abroad series for study abroad students, program professionals, and language instructors.
The overarching research question was: "To what degree and in what ways can a strategies-based approach to developing language skills and enhancing ability to function in a new culture, transmitted by means of a set of integrated study abroad guides for students, program professionals, and instructors respectively, promote language gain and cultural adaptation by students abroad?"

This research project was comprised of three separate studies on specific groups:

Students: The Students' Guide study was designed to field test the Students' Guide and to explore the impact of a curricular intervention on study abroad students' second language acquisition, intercultural development, language learning strategies, and culture learning strategies.

Program Professionals: The purpose of this study was to field test the Program Professionals Guide (PPG) with a group of study abroad program professionals who used the PPG to help them prepare and implement pre-departure or on-site study abroad programming.

Language Instructors: This case study involved four experienced French and Spanish language instructors who used the Language Instructors' Guide to plan and teach a language course. As with the other two parts of the Maximizing Study Abroad research project, the primary goal of this study was to field test the Language Instructors' Guide and to receive feedback from the instructors regarding usefulness of the Guide and how it could be improved.

Research Results

This report describes the MAXSA research studies and results outlined above:

Cohen, A. D., Paige, R. M., Shively, R. L., Emert, H., & Hoff, J. (2005). Maximizing study abroad through language and culture strategies: Research on students, study abroad program professionals, and language instructors. Final Report to the International Research and Studies Program, Office of International Education, DOE. Minneapolis, MN: Center for Advanced Research on Language Acquisition, University of Minnesota.

This extensive report on MAXSA research project is available online as PDF file at:

Overall the research showed that the timely application of language and culture learning strategies could positively improve outcomes for students. The professional materials and ‘toolkits’ provided to study abroad professionals and language instructors to support their teaching in their knowledge areas also proved pragmatically and pedagogically useful.

(Georgia Learning Outcomes of Students Studying Abroad Research Initiative)

The Glossari Project is one of the largest research projects every undertaken. Between 2000-2010, researchers (headed by Richard C. Sutton and Don Rubin) began a study to document the academic outcomes of study abroad across the entire 35-institution University System of Georgia. A decade later the results show that study abroad had major and measurable positive impacts on the participants personal and academic lives. Details on the data and various final reports are available for free downloading at the website: GLOSSARI Project (Georgia Learning Outcomes of Students Studying Abroad Research Initiative)

*Georgetown Consortium Project

Vande Berg, M., J. Connor-Linton, & R. Michael Paige. The Georgetown Consortium Project: Interventions for Student Learning Abroad. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad. V. 18, Fall. Boston, MA: Boston Univ., 2009. 76 pp.

Over a three-year period (2003-2006), Georgetown University's Office of International Programs, together with partner institutions, designed a large-scale, multi-year study of U.S. student learning abroad. Data collection involved pre- and post-testing nearly 1,300 students for target language and intercultural learning who were either participants in 61 programs abroad or in control groups on three home campuses.

The resulting data supported three broad conclusions with significant implications for study abroad policies and practices. First, students enrolled in study abroad programs averaged more progress in intercultural learning and oral proficiency in their target languages than control students studying these same languages in U.S. classrooms. Second, the study revealed significant relationships between independent variables representing learner characteristics and program features and the intercultural and target language learning of students abroad. And, third, the study identified significant—though somewhat indirect— relationships between gains in target language oral proficiency and inter- cultural development. Overall the project data substantially confirmed the proposition that students learn most effectively abroad when provided with timely, appropriate and proactive learning interventions.


AFS (American Field Service) is one of the oldest, largest, and most respected organizations engaged in providing intercultural learning experiences for high school age students. Since 1947, AFS has provided study abroad opportunities to over 400,000 young adults, and currently arranges exchanges for over 13,000 students worldwide each year with programs in more than 50 countries.

AFS has been conducting or sponsoring outcomes-research for many years to determine how well its programs were meeting the goal of increasing their students’ intercultural competencies and abilities to successfully cross cultural boundaries. Although a younger demographic than the traditional aged-college student participating in study abroad programs at US universities, the sophistication and longitudinal nature of the AFS research efforts make their research designs and subsequent findings worth examining.

A recent example of this is an independent assessment of the impact of the AFS study abroad experience upon their high school student participants. Dr. Mitchell Hammer of Hammer Consulting, LLC, was contracted to design and conduct the inquiry. This three-year independent study represents one of the most comprehensive, scientifically grounded investigations of the impact of international education exchange on high school students.

A total of 2,100 students participated. Of these, 1,500 were AFS exchange students who lived with a host family and studied in another country for ten months, and 600 were “student friends” comprising a control group. The study took place between September 2002 and July 2003. It was made possible by the collaboration of nine AFS offices (Austria, Brazil, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Germany, Hong Kong, Italy, Japan, and the United States) and with coordination provided by Dr. Bettina Hansel, who was at that time head of research for AFS.

A rigorous, pre-test, post-test, and post-post test, control group design was used. Data was collected before the students left for study abroad, immediately following the ten-month AFS program, and six months after they returned home. Responses were gathered from the student participants, their own parents, their host families, and from the control group. The study design enabled analysis of the impact of the AFS experience over time (pre-test to post-post test measures).

The major findings from the study clearly support the positive impact of AFS study abroad, and that these impacts are stable, remaining with the student after they return home. Further, these impacts are not found in the ordinary educational experience of secondary students in their home countries. The largest impacts are found specifically with students who begin the program in a more “Ethnocentric” stage of development, while little impact was seen any of the measures used in the study for those students who begin the program in the more interculturally developed stage of “Minimization.” This was measured by the IDI (Intercultural Development Inventory), an instrument which is based on the Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity, and which was administered several times over the course of the study.

This study is a model of a triangulated research design. The results confirmed that international exposure to cultural difference can lead to increased cultural self-awareness, as well as promote an appreciation and knowledge of other peoples’ cultural values and behaviors, but it does not occur automatically. Information on this study and other AFS research projects can be found and downloaded at:

The SAGE Project
Beyond Immediate Impact: Study Abroad for Global Engagement (SAGE)

The SAGE research project (2006-2009) was the second major assessment project undertaken by the University of Minnesota. The first was the MAXSA project outlined above. The purpose of SAGE was to conduct a retrospective tracer study developed by the co-principal investigators (Gerald W. Fry and R. Michael Paige) in collaboration with the Forum on Education Abroad. Over 6,000 former study abroad participants from 22 U.S. colleges, universities, and education abroad providers nationwide were involved and covered a time span of up to fifty years. It focused upon exploring the long-term personal, professional, and global engagement outcomes that the participants associated with and attributed to the impact of study abroad.

The researchers defined global engagement broadly as the contributions a person makes to the common good. Global engagement, as conceptualized by SAGE, is expressed civic commitments in domestic and international arenas; knowledge production of print, art, online, and digital media; philanthropy in terms of volunteer time and monetary donations; social entrepreneurship, or creating or supporting organizations whose purpose and/or profits are to benefit the community, and the practice of voluntary simplicity in one’s lifestyle.

The resulting data indicate that study abroad impacts participant’s lives personally and professionally in significant and ongoing ways post-return. There are some parallels with similar longitudinal studies done by the Peace Corps on RPCV’s (Returned Peace Corps Volunteers).

Information on the SAGE program and interim and final reports are available on line from the University of Minnesota. Contact: ; ;

Readings about Global Nomads/Third Culture Kids

Global Nomads are defined as, “anyone of any nationality who has lived outside of their parents’ country of origin (or their ‘passport country’) before adulthood because of a parent’s occupation” – Norma McCaig

Global Nomads (also referred to as ‘Third Culture Kids’) have been part of study abroad in the U.S. for several generations because of their international mobility as part of corporate, military, missionary, diplomatic and related contexts abroad. Moreover, they represent a growing percentage of US undergraduate students as they return ‘home’ for their University education. They also frequently go abroad on their institutions’ study abroad programs. Since they have amazingly diverse cultural and ethnic backgrounds and come from across the globe, their psychological and academic profiles are quite different from the domestic American students who have not had those experiences. This section has been included to: (1) help non-Global Nomads understand why a U.S. student raised overseas might have very different values and motivations from their domestic study abroad peers and (2) provide Global Nomads with support and information they may find useful.

Bell, L. Hidden Immigrants: Legacies of Growing Up Abroad. Cross-cultural Publications, 1996

Eidse, Faith and Nina Sichel. Unrooted Childhoods: Memoirs of Growing Up Global. Yarmouth, ME: Nicholas Brealey Publishing, 2004.

Iyer, P.. The Global Soul. Jet Lag, Shopping Malls, and the Search for Home. New York: Vintage Books, 2000.

McCluskey, K. C., ed. Notes from a Traveling Childhood. Reading for Internationally Mobile Parents and Children. U.S. Foreign Service Youth Foundation, 1994.

*Pollock, D., and Van Reken, R. Third Culture Kids: Growing Up Among Worlds. Yarmouth, ME: Intercultural Press, 1999

*Quick,Tina L. The Global Nomad’s Guide to University Transitions. Easton on the Hill, Stamford Lincolnshire, England: Summer Time Publishing, 2010.

Sichel, Nina and Gene H. Bell-Villada (Eds) with the assistance of Elaine Orr and Faith Eidse. Writing Out of Limbo: International Childhoods, Third-Culture Kids, and Global Nomads. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2011.

This collection contains an article by Bruce La Brack, ‘‘When US-Global Nomads Return ‘Home’ to College are They Domestic or Foreign Students?” that outlines a special matriculation program developed for Global Nomads at the School of International Studies, University of the Pacific, Stockton, Ca.

Smith, C. D. (1991). The Absentee American: Repatriates' Perspectives on America and Its Place in the Contemporary World. Praeger Publishers.

Smith, C. D. (ed.). Strangers at Home: Essays on the Effects of Living Overseas and Coming 'Home' To a Strange Land. Aletheia Publications, 1996.

Truscott, M. R.. Brats. E. P. Dutton Division of Penguin Books, 1989.

Useem, Ruth Hill. Third Culture Kid Bibliography,1999. Original and supplemental compilations available directly from Ann Baker Cottrell Dept. of Sociology, San Diego State University, San Diego CA. 92182,

Van Reken, R.. Letters Never Sent. Cook Publishing Co., 1988.

Viorst, Judith. Necessary Losses. Free Press 1998.

Walters, D. L.. An Assessment of Reentry Issues of the Children of Missionaries. Vantage Press, 1991.

Wertsch, M. E.. Military Brats. New York, NY: Harmony Books, 1991.

Instruments for Training and/or Evaluation

The Intercultural Effectiveness Scale (IES) Bird, A., and M. Mendenhall, G. Oddou, J. Osland, and M. Stevens (The Kozai group) created The Intercultural Effectiveness Scale (IES) that evaluates competencies critical for effective interaction with people from different cultures. Although originally developed for corporate contexts, it has been used in nonprofit organizations, as well as by faculty and students in university programs for: pre-and post- measurements for changes in intercultural competencies (used in higher education for accreditation purposes); cross-cultural and diversity courses to increase awareness and self-analysis for improvement, and intercultural competency needs assessment for training design or diversity initiatives. Instrument cost: $12 each, with discounts available for academic use. For further information contact: or

Cross-Cultural Adaptability Inventory. Kelley, C., & Meyers, J.  Manual. Minneapolis, MN: National Computer Systems, 1995.

At the core of the CCAI Self-Assessment process is a well researched 50 item self-assessment instrument. The CCAI instrument helps individuals identify their current strengths and weaknesses within four critical cultural-general skill areas important for effective cross-cultural communications and interactions. These include: emotional resilience, flexibility/ openness, perceptual acuity and personal autonomy.

For more information contact: CCAI  50-item instrument is published by Vangent.  To order CCAI materials, contact: Vangent, One North Dearborn, Suite 1600, Chicago, IL 60602

The Intercultural Development Inventory - Mitchell R. Hammer
A 50-item, theory-based instrument that can be taken online, currently available in twelve languages (Bahasa Indonesian, English, French, German, Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, Russian, Korean, French, Japanese and Chinese). It is a statistically reliable, cross-culturally valid measure of intercultural competence adapted from the Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity. Widely used in academia, the IDI can be used for a wide variety of purposes including: organization-wide needs assessment for planning training; program evaluation to assess the effectiveness of various interventions (including orientation and reentry in study abroad), and general pre- and post-event research. However, using the IDI requires becoming a Qualified IDI Administrator. For further information contact:

The Intercultural Conflict Style (ICS) Inventory – Mitchell R. Hammer
The ICS is a useful tool for identifying fundamental approaches for resolving conflict across cultural and ethnic group difference. The ICS Inventory consists of 18 items and is a self-scoring, easy to use, cross-culturally valid and statistically reliable. It can be used for individual, group, and organizational level assessments. It is widely used during study abroad training for pre-departure and in-country orientations for. The cost of each ICS Inventory and Interpretive Guide is $12.00 plus shipping and handling. For a more detailed description of the ICS framework or to order contact:

Revised January 2012

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